When examining dangerousness and characteristics of partner stalking, it is important to compare differences between partner stalkers and non-partner stalkers such as acquaintances and strangers.
In one study, researchers summarize the difference between intimate partner stalkers and non-intimate partner stalkers:
Partner stalkers are more threatening and more violent than non-partner stalkers. This has consistently been found in a number of studies using a variety of methodologies.
Another feature of stalking to examine is how responsive the stalker is to various interventions, especially court interventions. Partner stalkers are more likely to reoffend after a court intervention and reoffend more quickly than non-partner stalkers.
In addition to threats and violence, partner stalkers appear to engage in stalking behavior more frequently and intensely than non-partner stalkers.
Understanding what characteristics differentiate partner stalkers from other stalkers is important.
In general, the research is inconsistent or lacking in the understanding of characteristics that differentiate partner stalkers from non-partner stalking including criminal history, substance abuse, personality disorders, and delusional/psychotic disorders.
[40-42] However, some research is converging to suggest partner stalkers are more violent but less likely to be psychotic.
[note 1][note 3][note 10][note 18][note 22][note 37][note 45] Mohandie, K., J. Meloy, M. McGowan and J. Williams, "The RECON Typology of Stalking: Reliability and Validity Based upon a Large Sample of North American Stalkers,"
Journal of Forensic Science 51(1) (2006): 147-155.
[note 2] Kamphuis, J., and P. Emmelkamp, "Traumatic Distress Among Support-seeking Female Victims of Stalking,"
American Journal of Psychiatry 158(5) (2001): 795-798.
[note 4][note 11][note 21][note 32][note 36] Palarea, R., M. Zona, J. Lane and J. Langhinrichsen-Rohling, "The Dangerous Nature of Intimate Relationship Stalking: Threats, Violence and Associated Risk Factors,"
Behavioral Sciences and the Law 17 (1999): 269-283.
[note 5][note 15][note 23][note 26][note 31] Sheridan, L., and G. Davies, "Violence and the Prior Victim-Stalker Relationship,"
Criminal Behavior and Mental Health 11 (2001): 102-116.
[note 6] Thomas, S., R. Purcell, M. Pathé and P. Mullen, "Harm Associated with Stalking Victimization,"
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 42 (2008): 800-806.
[note 7][note 43] Farnham, F., D. James and P. Cantrell, "Association between Violence, Psychosis, and Relationship to Victim in Stalkers,"
The Lancet 355 (2000): 199.
[note 8] James, D., and F. Farnham, "Stalking and Serious Violence,"
Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 31 (2003): 432-439.
[note 9][note 38][note 41] McEwan, T., P. Mullen and R. Purcell, "Identifying Risk Factors in Stalking: A Review of Current Research,"
International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 30 (2007): 1-9.
[note 12] Rosenfeld, B., and R. Harmon, "Factors Associated with Violence in Stalking and Obsessional Harassment Cases,"
Criminal Justice and Behavior 29(6) (2002): 671-691.
[note 13][note 17][note 42] Rosenfeld, B., "Violence Risk Factors in Stalking and Obsessional Harassment: A Review and Preliminary Meta-analysis,"
Criminal Justice and Behavior 31(1) (2004): 9-36.
[note 16] Coleman, F., "Stalking Behavior and the Cycle of Domestic Violence,"
Journal of Interpersonal Violence 12(3) (1997): 420-432.
[note 19] Rosenfeld, B., "Recidivism in Stalking and Obsessional Harassment,"
Law and Human Behavior 27(3) (2003): 251-265.
[note 24] Johnson, M., and G. Kercher, "Identifying Predictors of Negative Psychological Reactions to Stalking Victimization,"
Journal of Interpersonal Violence 24(5) (2009): 886-882.
[note 25] Nicastro, A., A. Cousins and B. Spitzberg, "The Tactical Face of Stalking,"
Journal of Criminal Justice 28 (2000): 69-82.
[note 27][note 35] Logan, T., J. Cole, L. Shannon and R. Walker,
Partner Stalking: How Women Respond, Cope, and Survive, New York: Springer Publishing, 2006.
[note 28][note 34] Logan, T., and R. Walker, "Partner Stalking: Psychological Dominance or Business as Usual?"
Trauma, Violence, and Abuse 10(3) (2009): 247-270.
[note 30] Mullen, P., M. Pathé and R. Purcell,
Stalkers and Their Victims, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
[note 33] Emerson, R., K. Ferris and C. Gardner, "On Being Stalked,"
Social Problems 45(3) (1998): 289-314.
[note 39] Tjaden, P., and N. Thoennes, "Stalking in America: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey," Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1998, NCJ 169592.
[note 40] Douglas, K., and D. Dutton, "Assessing the Link between Stalking and Domestic Violence,"
Aggression and Violent Behavior 6 (2001): 519-546.
[note 44] Kienlen, K., D. Birmingham, K. Solberg, J. O'Regan and J. Meloy, "A Comparative Study of Psychotic and Nonpsychotic Stalking,"
Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 25(3) (1997): 317-334.