|Police Leadership Challenges in a Changing World (pdf, 24 pages)
By Anthony W. Batts, Sean Michael Smoot and Ellen Scrivner
|There is a new generation of police recruits entering the profession, with habits and expertise in different areas that can
clash with police organizations' traditional paramilitary culture and industrial-type bureaucracy. The success of police organizational
leaders may depend on how effectively they recognize and adapt to the dynamic characteristics of younger officers. This paper
argues that these "contemporary employees" present not only leadership challenges but also significant opportunities, as they
bring demographically unique attributes to law enforcement that may help it align better with community and citizen expectations.
The contemporary employee demonstrates a familiarity with technology and social media; new attitudes towards their role in
law enforcement and the community; greater acceptance of diversity; and new expectations regarding autonomy, participation
in decision making and flexibility of working conditions. These skill sets, attitudes and expectations are among the competencies
needed for 21st century law enforcement.
|Exploring the Role of the Police in Prisoner Reentry (pdf, 24 pages)
Jeremy Travis, Ronald Davis, and Sarah Lawrence
|One thing is certain for nearly all prisoners who are in state and federal custody: they will come back. Traditionally, the
police have played little part in facilitating the reentry of prisoners into the community, both because the police have seen
their role as limited to the surveillance of probationers and parolees for the violation of the terms of their release or
the commission of new crimes and because of a historical lack of trust between organizations that work with returning offenders
and law enforcement agencies. In this paper, the authors argue that police, particularly urban police departments, have a
major role to play in prisoner reentry, in part because of high recidivism rates among returning offenders and because of
their concentration in some of the poorest, highest crime neighborhoods. Greater involvement of the police in prisoner reentry
can promote public safety through more focused problem-oriented policing efforts and increase police legitimacy, particularly
in minority communities, through enhanced community policing efforts.
|Police Discipline: A Case for Change (pdf, 27 pages)
by Darrel W. Stephens
|This paper describes the challenges law enforcement agencies nationwide experience with current disciplinary procedures and
offers alternate approaches that can improve internal morale and external relationships with the community. Stephens also
highlights proactive approaches (such as education-based discipline, mediation, peer review and early intervention) that some
agencies are employing to manage and reform officer behavior.
|The Persistent Pull of Police Professionalism (pdf, 20 pages)
by David Alan Sklansky
|This paper suggests that the past model of police professionalism has been updated as a result of technology and federal funding.
Sklansky explains that 1960s police professionalism was not about tactics, such as random patrol, but rather about the governing
mindset behind policies. By the early 1980s, this professional policing model was discredited, giving birth to community policing,
which also focused more on ideas and policy and less on tactics. Community policing was seen to have shortcomings, such as
being vague and not reducing serious crime. Today, professional policing is mounting a comeback. Community policing, however,
is still valuable. Although the community policing model is incomplete, a model of "advanced community policing" could address
unanswered specifics about the nature of community policing that would help law enforcement agencies, police researchers and
the public resist the persistent pull of police professionalism.
|Moving the Work of Criminal Investigators Towards Crime Control (pdf, 38 pages)
by Anthony A. Braga, Edward A. Flynn, George L. Kelling and Christine M. Cole
|This paper points out the challenges to police executives in moving the work of criminal investigators toward a more active
role in crime control. The paper provides research on the effectiveness of criminal investigators, the problem-oriented approach
to crime control and intelligence-led policing. The authors suggest ways to allocate proactive and problem-solving work between
criminal investigators and patrol officers. The paper concludes with examples by the authors of moving the work of criminal
investigators at the Milwaukee Police Department, the New York Police Department, the Victoria Police in Australia, and police
agencies in the United Kingdom.
|Toward a New Professionalism in Policing (pdf, 27 pages)
by Christopher Stone and Jeremy Travis
|In the 1980s, community policing replaced the traditional crime-fighting model of policing, often referred to as "professional
policing." Community policing was an improvement over the previous policing paradigm (one that the authors argue was more
truly professional than the command-and-control model that it replaced) and represented a great change in how police officers
did their jobs. The authors argue that it is now time for a new model for the 21st century, one that they call a "New Professionalism."
Their framework rests on increased accountability for police in both their effectiveness and their conduct; greater legitimacy
in the eyes of the citizenry; continuous innovation in tactics and strategies for interacting with offenders, victims, and
the general public; and national coherence through the development of national norms and protocols for policing.
|Police Science: Toward a New Paradigm (pdf, 24 pages)
by David Weisburd and Peter Neyroud
|This paper urges the police to take ownership and make use of science in the policing task. The authors commend the police
industry for embracing innovative management strategies and crime control and prevention policies over the last two decades,
but argue that as a whole, the profession has been hesitant to adopt scientific, evidence-based policies and practices resulting
in a fundamental disconnect between science and policing.
The authors discuss existing research that supports their contention and lay out a proposal for a new, science-based policing
paradigm. They describe the adoption this paradigm as necessary if the police industry is to "retain public support and legitimacy,
cope with recessionary budget cuts, and...alleviate the problems that have become part of the policing task."
|Governing Science (pdf, 36 pages)
by Malcolm K. Sparrow
|This paper argues that the emphasis on using evidence-based practices from social science research and methodology to establish
operational and program agendas for policing practice only limits and distracts from more relevant and substantive contributions
from natural sciences methodology (e.g., pattern recognition); traditionally productive avenues of observation, investigation
and inquiry (e.g., crime analysis); and problem-oriented policing as more effective responses to crime in communities.
|Making Policing More Affordable: Managing Costs and Measuring Value in Policing (pdf, 20 pages)
by George Gascón and Todd Foglesong
|During the last 25 years, the costs of policing have risen dramatically across the nation. This rise in costs has spurred
debates among city managers, elected officials, and police chiefs on how best to pay for policing — a debate that has only
become sharper with the current fiscal crisis among state and local governments. This paper looks at the rising costs of policing
in one medium-sized U.S. city (Mesa, Ariz.), and asks two major questions 1) What is driving up the costs of policing? 2)
What return on their investment in policing are cities and their residents receiving?
The paper compares policing costs and returns for Mesa with other nearby cities in the vicinity of Phoenix and with other
medium-sized cities across the country. It then considers strategies now being tested for managing the rising costs of policing,
including efforts to cut spending, raise productivity, revalue the benefits of policing and reengineer operations.
|The Changing Environment for Policing, 1985-2008 (pdf, 16 pages)
by David H. Bayley and Christine Nixon
|This paper explores the differences in the environment for policing between 1985 and 2008. Policing in the United States was
under siege in the 1980s; crime had been rising from the early 1960s and research showed that traditional police strategies
were not working (e.g., hiring more police, random motorized patrolling, foot patrols, rapid response to calls for service
and routine criminal investigation). Recent research has reconfirmed this, even though crime has declined dramatically since
1990. However, the panel found that police could reduce crime when they focused operations on particular problems or places
and supplemented law enforcement with other regulatory and abatement activities.
|One Week in Heron City: A Case Study
by Malcolm K. Sparrow
|One Week in Heron City follows Chief Laura Harrison's through her first week on the job in this fictional city of 400,000.
We invite you to eavesdrop and see how law enforcement agencies might eliminate pre-established mentalities and see problems
in a new light. Chief Harrison enters a city:
- Where the sense of safety has been shattered by the brutal, unsolved murder of a young mother who had repeatedly told police
she was being followed.
- Experiencing a rash of high-end car thefts that few people are concerned about because of excellent insurance payouts.
- Whose public health department is preparing for a possible flu pandemic and wants to know what services the police can offer.
Chief Harrison discovers that progress is slow made despite all the department's problemsolving efforts — Compstat, intelligence-led
and evidence-based policing, community policing.