Law 280 and Law Enforcement in Indian Country: Research Priorities
Passed in 1953, Public Law 280 (PL 280) gave jurisdiction
over criminal offenses involving Indians in Indian country
to certain States and allowed other States to assume jurisdiction.
Subsequent legislation allowed States to retrocede jurisdiction,
which has occurred in some areas. This Research in Brief
summarizes the current status of PL 280 jurisdiction, identifies
the key issues, and lists areas for further research and
Available at www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/209839.pdf.
Accountability Incentive Block Grants: Assessing Initial Implementation
Congress created Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block
Grants (JAIBG) in 1997 to encourage States and localities
to strengthen prosecution and adjudication of juvenile offenders.
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
began awarding JAIBG funds in 1998. The National Institute
of Justice authorized Abt Associates Inc. to conduct a process
evaluation to determine how block grant funds were spent
in the initial years of the grant and how States and localities
conformed to policy objectives envisioned by Congress. This
Research for Policy, based on a more extensive final report
to NIJ, discusses the key evaluation findings.
Available at www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/210116.pdf.
and Patterns of Juvenile Crime
Juveniles often commit crimes in pairs or groups, which
is known as cooffending. Results of an NIJ-sponsored study
of delinquents in Philadelphia showed that co-offending
is linked to increased risks for recidivism and violence,
and interaction among delinquent peers seems to instigate
crimes and escalate their severity. The researchers recommend
early intervention targeting very young offenders, especially
co-offenders. But they also caution that some interventions
may enhance the effects of co-offending by placing youths
in groups that unintentionally provide negative peer learning.
Available at www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/210360.pdf.
Assault on Campus: What Colleges and Universities Are Doing
College women are at higher risk for sexual assault than
their non–college-bound peers. Yet, many rapes and
attempted rapes are unreported, perhaps because for the
majority of these crimes, the victim and assailant are acquainted.
Schools vary widely in how they comply with Federal requirements
to report and respond to sexual victimization. These are
among the findings from the first major survey of the Nation’s
colleges and universities inquiring about sexual assault
on campus and how schools report and handle the problem.
Many schools need guidance on how to comply with Federal
requirements to disclose security procedures, report crime
data, and ensure victims’ rights. Promising practices
in prevention, policy, victim support services, and other
areas are discussed.
Available at www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/205521.pdf.
What factors contribute to or detract from police officer
integrity, and how can police administrators measure integrity?
A national survey of police officers identified characteristics
of agency culture that encourage officers to resist or tolerate
certain types of misconduct. This Research for Practice
summarizes the survey findings and includes an assessment
tool that police chiefs can use to measure integrity within
Available at www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/209269.pdf.