NIJ Conference 2006 Abstracts

Concurrent Panel, Monday, 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM

Portraits of Contemporary Adolescent Offending

Initial Pathways out of Serious Delinquency
Edward P. Mulvey and Carol Schubert

Using data from the Pathways to Desistance study, this presentation will provide information about different trajectories of self-reported offending over a two- and three-year period after adjudication in a sample of serious adolescent offenders in two metropolitan areas (N = 1,355). Characteristics of adolescents who report different patterns of offending over time will be presented. Service involvement and changes in life circumstances over the follow-up period will also be compared for the groups of offenders showing different patterns of self-reported offending. Implications of these relations for intervention and policy will be emphasized.

Our Hardest to Love Children: A Portrait of Juvenile Justice
Michael A. Corriero

For centuries philosophers have struggled to define justice, constantly seeking to improve the way humanity applies the concept. What is justice for children who violate the law? How should a just society judge young offenders? When is it proper to punish a child as a criminal? What form should the punishment take? And what justifies the practice? As the presiding judge of Manhattan's Youth Part since 1992, a special court in New York City which has the responsibility of resolving cases of children as young as 13 who are tried as adults, I have confronted the complex world of troubled children and children in trouble with the law. I intend to present an accurate portrayal of certain consequences of the policy of trying children as adults as they have consistently and continuously been revealed to me. My presentation will include an appraisal of the issues presented by such a policy and my recommendations for improving our juvenile justice system.

Using Global Positioning Systems to Supervise Sex Offenders in the Community

Corrections Use of Location and Tracking Technologies
Michael Epstein

The criminal justice community has monitored offenders using GPS based technology for more than five years. It is proving to be a viable alternative to incarceration and electronic monitoring in the home. The competition between vendors has continued to enhance the services, accuracy and data that these systems provide. This presentation will provide information about the technologies in use and their operational implementations. The technology presentation will discuss the advantages and limitations of these systems as well as the opportunities to data mine the tracking information. The operational presentation will touch on the use of these systems by various agencies, the changes to operational procedures and the improvements to offender monitoring.

Digital Evidence: Investigations, Evidence Preservation, and Analysis

Steganalysis and Stegextraction
Mark Hirsh

This presentation describes the work DCCI is doing regarding the testing of steganalysis programs and the development of steganalysis and stegextraction tools. With respect to steganalysis, DCCI uses its library of more than 7000 files (4000+ clean files and 3000+ stego files) to test and evaluate programs that claim to have the ability to identify files containing hidden data, and in some instances identify the steganography program used to hide the data. With respect to stegextraction, DCCI has recently begun pursuing activities that are aimed at developing software that can extract and, in some cases decrypt data that has been hidden in a file using a steganography program.

Criminal Justice Lessons Learned from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

The Impact of Katrina on the Prison Population
James Austin

One of the effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita was the massive relocation of one of the primary feeder systems for the state correctional system. This presentation reports on the impact to date this population shift has had on the state prison, parole, and probations populations. It also summarizes what steps the state is taking to significantly lower its prison population by over 7,000 inmates over the next 18 months to meet its budgetary goals. Finally, analysis of pre and post Katrina/Rita crime rate data are presented.

Concurrent Panel, Monday, 1:50 PM - 3:15 PM

Who Are We Missing?: Addressing the Criminal Justice Needs of Sexual Assault Victims from Diverse Communities
Jennifer Obinna

Research has just begun to explore sexual violence in culturally diverse communities. Understanding the impact of sexual violence in culturally Deaf communities is often overlooked and considered an undeveloped area of inquiry. Such research calls for exploratory approaches using qualitative methods and cultural competency when conducting the research activities. Hearing culture tends to define Deafness as a disability and as such, research has focused on studying disability populations as a whole without acknowledging the unique character of cultural Deafness. This paradigm may contribute to some of the isolation issues faced by the Deaf community. NIJ grant 2003-IJ-CX-1035 funded a study that examines the perceptions of Deaf and hearing service providers who assist Deaf individuals with the aftermath of sexual victimization and who individuals in the Deaf community tell about their experiences of sexual assault. It also deals with why, and what service gaps exist for the Deaf community and what can law enforcement do to be a more effective resource for members of the Deaf community. A secondary aim of this study was to implement a Participatory Action Research (PAR) approach in researching a sensitive topic in the Deaf community to determine if the PAR approach is effective. This study has four main outcomes. First, the study provides information to the hearing community regarding Deaf individuals' perspective on the impact of sexual assault on their community. Second, this study's results include information on help seeking patterns in the Deaf community. Third, this study helps to identify the needs of Deaf individuals who have been sexually assaulted as well as service gaps affecting this population. Fourth, this study tests the effectiveness of a participatory research model in recruiting Deaf participants and structuring the study. This study's results have pertinent applications in understanding the needs of Deaf persons who have been sexually assaulted. Information regarding Deaf individuals' perceptions of the problem of sexual assault, response to sexual assault, and service gaps to the Deaf community is vital to creating and sustaining services and policies for the Deaf community.

Reaching Diverse Communities: The National Sexual Assault Online Hotline
Jessica Braider

After receiving thousands of emails from those in need of support, but unwilling or unable to visit or call their local rape crisis center, RAINN began development of the National Sexual Assault Online Hotline. Making use of experienced, trained hotline volunteers to provide high-quality, real-time, anonymous and secure crisis support services, the Online Hotline will provide a first step to presently underserved groups including the Deaf community, disabled individuals, teens and members of rural communities where true anonymity does not exist. Hotline development began in November 2004 and has been completed. The National Sexual Assault Online Hotline will launch nationally in late-2006, following a pilot launch in mid-2006.

Methamphetamine Linkages: Production, Enforcement, and Policy

The Methamphetamine Business in the Wa area of the Golden Triangle
Ko-Lin Chin

This paper will focus on the changing patterns of drug producing and trafficking in the Wa area of the Golden Triangle. Based on face-to-face interviews with more than 100 subjects in the Wa and the Kokang areas, including armed group leaders, drug producers, drug dealers, and other key informants such as businessmen and drug users, this paper will discuss the shift from heroin to methamphetamine as the drug of choice for drug producers, dealers and users. The individual characteristics of the methamphetamine dealers and users, the social organization of the methamphetamine trade, and the role of the armed groups' leaders in the drug trade will also be examined.

Field Investigation Drug Officer (FIDO) Program
David L. Sylvester

A presentation on the Field Investigation Drug Officer (FIDO)Recommended Practice Guide and Training Program, which utilizes a consistent, standardized curriculum to train certified drug officers in the use of existing and emerging technologies for the preliminary identification of controlled substances in the field. Providing field drug officers with standardized training, tools and technology may result in a reduced crime lab workload, a basis for obtaining plea agreements earlier and more often, and allow for the efficient adjudication of charges. FIDO has produced a standardized training curriculum based on a Recommended Practice Guide which will provide law enforcement officers with the skills necessary to identify controlled substances using the common field color testing kits.

The efficiency of the entire criminal justice system is impacted by the overwhelming caseload of drug investigations. As a result, many cases fail to be prosecuted in a reasonable timeframe or are dismissed due to a lack of timely sample analysis. Straightforward possession drug cases comprise a significant percentage of those investigations. Handling the cases at the investigative level has the potential to streamline the adjudication process, enabling the reduction of backlogged investigations and the efficient use of resources.

The National Institute of Justice (NIJ), in partnership with its National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Centers (NLECTC) and the Forensic Resource Network (FRN), has addressed this issue. A focus group consisting of representatives from the law enforcement, forensic science, corrections, legal, and judicial communities was established to facilitate development and deployment of the Field Investigation Drug Officer (FIDO) program. The development of the FIDO program was managed by the National Forensic Science Technology Center (NFSTC). The NFSTC partnered with the Rural Law Enforcement Technology Center (RULETC) and Eastern Kentucky University (EKU) for program pilot testing and evaluation.

Following suggestions from the focus group discussions, the program was designed with sufficient flexibility to enable adaptation based on agency-specific needs and resources and to accommodate future technologies. The program is comprised of a comprehensive training program and quality assurance system that provides law enforcement personnel with the resources necessary to perform preliminary identification of controlled substances and testify to the results.

The program affords certified law enforcement officers the capability of providing a preliminary identification of the most commonly encountered drugs of abuse. The benefits include immediate investigative information without the need for extensive laboratory analysis as well as facilitation of case adjudication in the preliminary phase. The results of the field test may factor into obtaining an immediate plea agreement. However, cases proceeding to trial are submitted for complete analysis at the laboratory. A successful model program at the Phoenix Police Department has demonstrated a positive impact on their regional criminal justice system with cost savings and increased efficiency at all levels.

Impact of Identity Theft on Victims: New Research and Services for Victims

Identity Theft: First Estimates from the NCVS
Katrina Baum

Questions about identity theft were added to the National Crime Victimization Survey in July of 2004. Findings from a preliminary analysis of the first six months of data will be presented. Identity theft was defined as the use or attempted use of existing credit card accounts, other existing accounts, or personal information to obtain new accounts, loans, or commit other crimes. Differences between victimization by demographic characteristics of households will be discussed as well as characteristics of the theft such as how the victim discovered the identity theft, whether the misuse is still ongoing, problems experienced as a result of the theft, and total amount of monetary loss.

Methodological challenges in measuring identity theft will also be identified.

Stolen Identities: A Victimization Survey
Henry N. Pontell

Identity fraud, a large category of criminal offenses committed through the use of stolen or fictitious identities, has been termed the fastest growing crime in the U.S. Despite significant social and financial costs, formal research on the issue has been scarce. The purpose of this study is to provide descriptive data from victims to help inform policies that could be effective in preventing such offenses, and which respond to the needs of identity theft victims. The research analyzes data collected by the Identity Theft Resource Center through a survey with confirmed victims who sought the organization's assistance between July 2003 and October 2004. The findings offer patterns regarding both identity fraud offending and offenders, depict the nature and consequences of victimization, and underline a current lack of swiftness and effectiveness responses to the problem.

Recent Findings from OJJDP's Causes and Correlates Program of Research

The Influence of Life Events on Delinquency Initiation, and Continuation
David Huizinga, Amanda Elliott, Linda Cunningham, Kate Johnson

There is evidence that stressful family events (e.g. changes in family structure, serious illness or death of family members, or moving), and personal life events (e.g., changing schools, breaking up with a girl/boyfriend, changing peer groups) often lead to involvement in delinquency and crime; and that other life events (e.g., marriage, getting a good job, or having children), are salient factors for the desistance from delinquency. This presentation examines the influence of such life events, in the presence of other risk and protective factors, on the initiation of, continuation of, and desistance from delinquency and later crime. The information used is taken from the qualitative and structured interviews of the longitudinal Denver Youth Survey, which has extensive data on general life events and life events specific to adolescent concerns.

Intergenerational Continuities in Young Parenthood: Consequences for Children and Grandchildren
Terence P. Thornberry

This presentation examines the impacts of early childbearing across three generations of families in the Rochester Youth Development Study (RYDS). We examine whether early age at first childbirth in the first generation (G1) impacts their children's development (G2), and, via that, their grandchildren's development (G3). We find that a) G1's early age at first childbirth leads to adverse outcomes for G2 and b) G2's early age at first childbirth leads to adverse outcomes for G3. The effect of G1's early age at first childbirth on G3 is entirely indirect through age at first birth and associated mediating processes in G2.

What Causes Juvenile Delinquents to Stop Offending?
Rolf Loeber, Magda Stouthamer-Loeber, David P. Farrington, and Dustin A.

Relatively few studies have examined predictors of desistance in juvenile delinquency between childhood and early adulthood. Even fewer studies have examined the interplay between protective and risk factors in predicting later desistance at different ages (e.g., early adolescence, late adolescence, or early adulthood). The paper presents results from youngest and oldest cohorts of men in the Pittsburgh Youth Study (N = 1,009), a longitudinal study with 18 to 16 assessments spread between ages 7 and 25. The results show that protective factors are important in predicting which young men desist. The findings also demonstrate that protective factors to some degree buffer the impact of risk factors. The implications of the findings are discussed in terms of improving screening devices to better distinguish between those who desist early and those who are likely to persist. The results also have implications for improving future interventions, particularly those that rely on enhancing protective factors to increase positive life outcomes that are incompatible with serious delinquency.

Concurrent Panel, Monday, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

What Do We Know After Ten Years of Violence Against Women Research Funding?

A Decade of Research on Violence Against Women: What We Know and What We Need to Know
Claire M. Renzetti

During the past 10 years, research on the problem of violence against women has been nothing less than prolific. A major contributor to the research growth has been the funding provided through the Violence and Victimization Research Division of NIJ. This presentation draws on VVRD's Compendium of Research on Violence Against Women, as well as submissions to the journal, Violence Against Women, and interviews with key informants to assess both the strengths and the gaps in our knowledge about the problem of violence against women. The research produced over the 10 years of VVRD's funding (and the 12 years of publication of Violence Against Women) has fulfilled two of the major roles that research should fill: increasing understanding of a problem and, at the same time, identifying critical issues in need of study. A third question to be addressed is: Have we made an impact? In other words, how has the research been used to bring about significant social change? The research conducted on violence against women over the past 10 years has resulted in substantial “usable knowledge” that links, arguably more effectively than most areas of scientific and scholarly knowledge production, the research, practice, and advocacy communities. The presentation will conclude by considering ways to strengthen these partnerships.

Does Institutional Review Board Oversight Interfere with Good Research?

Prisoners as a Vulnerable Population
Cathy Spatz Widom

This presentation will focus on prisoners as a vulnerable population and will begin with a description of a variety of different experiences conducting research in prison settings. We will examine the reactions of prisoners to research participation and compare their reactions to those of individuals in other vulnerable subgroups (defined by economic, social, psychological, physical health, and child maltreatment status) drawing on empirical findings. Implications for research with prisoners will be discussed.

Criminal Justice Information Sharing: Real Time Sharing with Real Results

Implementing GJXDM for the Missouri Judiciary
Robin E. Gibson

The Missouri Office of State Courts Administrator (OSCA) has undertaken exciting projects that have enabled the migration of legacy case management data to the statewide case management system utilizing the Global Justice XML Data Model (GJXDM) and to transfer case initiation information from Prosecuting Attorneys to the courts. In doing so, OSCA has changed its application development methodology and significantly reduced new transfer development times. In addition, the first implementations will have a cost avoidance of over 70 percent from previously used methodologies. The use of GJXDM-based XML will pave the way for future projects such as electronic case filing. In this case study, OSCA's ongoing involvement with the development of the GJXDM, application development approach, lessons learned, and a sampling of the technologies used to implement GJXDM will be discussed.

Federal Death Penalty System

When Does Homicide Become a Federal Case?
Phyllis J. Newton

A homicide occurs. What happens? Who comes to the scene of the homicide? Who investigates? If we believe homicide is a state crime, why would they be investigated or prosecuted in the federal system? Our study takes as a starting point the studies conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice for the period of 1995 through 2000 that looked at the question of racial and regional disparity in federal death penalty cases.

Building on earlier DOJ Studies, former Attorneys General Janet Reno and John Ashcroft asked NIJ to sponsor research related to the operation of the federal death penalty system. Our research responds directly to the NIJ call for research into the process by which “homicide cases are investigated and how and why some those cases enter the federal system and others enter the state system”. To date, inmates residing on federal death row have been convicted of some form of homicide, from those committed in furtherance of a large drug enterprise or organized crime to those resulting from carjacking or kidnapping. The early DOJ studies found considerable variation among federal districts in their use of the federal death penalty.

This study examines the processed by which criminal cases, especially homicide cases, enter the federal criminal justice system. Researchers visited nine federal districts and interviewed all actors in the state and federal criminal justice systems that potentially played a role in determining whether a homicide case was investigated and prosecuted in the state or federal systems. Within each district, researched interviewed local and federal prosecutors, local and state police, federal investigative agents, and defense attorneys who practiced in federal court. The nine districts represented a geographically diverse sample of federal courts.

This presentation focuses on four of the nine sites in which interviews were conducted, describing site specific findings as relates to key factors identified within each district that influence the federal processing of homicides. Using comparative analysis techniques, we explored patterns of similarity and differences among the four federal districts in terms of the processes and dynamics related to the selection of jurisdiction for investigating and prosecuting homicide cases. The findings suggest that cross jurisdictional variations in openness and cooperation help to explain why federal districts have highly different numbers of cases charged capitally (openness meaning willingness of local and federal authorities to consider federal prosecution of homicide cases and cooperation meaning how closely local and federal authorities work together.

Race and the Decision to Seek the Death Penalty in Federal Cases
Stephen P. Klein

This study examined the relationship between the federal government's decision to seek the death penalty in a case and that case's characteristics, including the defendant's and victim's race. This research began by identifying the types of data that would be appropriate and feasible to gather. Next, case characteristics were abstracted from Department of Justice Capital Case Unit (CCU) files. Defendant and victim race data were obtained from electronic files. Finally, three independent teams used these data to investigate whether charging decisions were related to defendant or victim race. The teams also examined whether these decisions were related to case characteristics and geographic area. There are large race effects in the raw data that are of concern. However, all three teams found that controlling for non-racial case characteristics eliminated these effects, and these characteristics could predict the seek decision with 85 to 90 percent accuracy. These findings support the view that decisions to seek the death penalty were driven by heinousness of crimes rather than race. Nevertheless, these findings are not definitive because of the difficulties in determining causation from statistical modeling of observational data.

Advancements in Crime Series Analysis for Identifying an Offender's Base of Operations

Finding the Optimal Search Area for a Serial Criminal
Mike O'Leary

In 2005-2006 a group of six undergraduate students and one graduate student from Towson University's Applied Mathematics Laboratory examined mathematical algorithms that analyze a series of linked crimes and determine the offender's home base using a mathematical algorithm.

Existing methods include various centrographic techniques, including finding either the centroid or the center of minimum distance for the crime series, or the circle method of Canter and Larkin (1993). Another class of approaches are probability distance strategies, where probability density functions are centered at each crime site, then summed, with the maximum corresponding to the best estimate for the offender's home base. This is exemplified in the work of Rossmo (2000).

In our approach, we assume that an offender with home base z commits a crime at the location x with probability P(x;z,ß) where P has a known form (e.g. Gaussian, or exponential) but the home base z and the shape parameters ß are unknown. We then use the data from the crime series and maximum likelihood methods to find the best estimates of these unknown parameters.

The advantage of this method is that it allows us to explicitly model geographic features by incorporating them into the structure of the probability function P. To illustrate, suppose that the geographic region containing the crime series is divided into three subregions: the reporting jurisdiction, neighboring region(s) that may contain home bases, and neighboring region(s) that cannot contain home bases. An example of the last type of region is a large body of water. In all other respects we assume that the geography is homogenous. If we then assume that the P decays like a Gaussian function of the distance between the home base and the crime site, then the best estimate for the home base of an offender who commits crimes at x1, x2,...,xn in a jurisdiction is Ω

The student team has created a prototype computer program that implements this algorithm. The integration is performed numerically on a corresponding line integral using a tenth order Gaussian method, while the maximum value of the likelihood function is calculated using the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno quasi-Newton method.

Concurrent Panel, Tuesday, 10:15 AM - 11:45 AM

Conducting Research and Evaluation in Indian Country

Indian Country Research & Evaluation: A Roadmap for Future and Needed
Laurel Shuster

This presentation will highlight extant research and evaluation work on crime, justice, and victimization in Indian country and identify the need for and gaps in research due to new and emerging issues involving victim services, public safety, preventing and controlling crime and violence, and strengthening tribal justice systems.

Safety in a Cyber World

The Predator and Prey Alert System (PAPA)
Sudhir Aggarwal

Stalking is a crime typified by repeated harassment of another person and intrusion upon his or her privacy. Cyberstalking extends stalking into the realm of cyberspace wherein a predator stalks a victim or prey through internet technologies such as emails, chat rooms, and instant messaging. This presentation describes PAPA which consists of a set of integrated software and hardware modules and tools designed to support law enforcement in helping victims of cyberstalking. PAPA facilitates the investigation of such crimes and maintains evidence for the potential prosecution of the cyberstalker. Relevant statutes related to the use of the PAPA system will also be discussed.

Fighting Online Child Exploitation
Jeffrey Isherwood

Examining the ways that families and children utilize the internet, and which aspects of these uses are putting them most at risk, and what the CyberScience Lab (CSL) is doing to help law enforcement fight the problem. Examples of some briefing materials that the CSL uses for outreach and training. In addition, some time will be devoted to taking a glimpse into what risks new and emerging technologies might pose to our youth, and what the guardians of our young can do to help fight the growing problem of online exploitation of America's youth.

Child Safety in a Cyber World
Teri Schroeder

Predatory acts against our children are among the most heinous of crimes perpetrated within our society. Historically, communities as a collective take deliberate and specific actions to protect their children in an effort to prevent these heinous acts. These protective actions include: education —teaching children to be wary of strangers, to recognize and avoid dangerous situations, to cry for help when they feel threatened.

Our nation is now faced with technological advancements that allow even the youngest of children to have access to the Internet. Students today explore the wonders of the world by transporting themselves through cyberspace. They can travel to the brightest most intellectual domains of the universe and conversely, they may travel to the darkest most detestable realms of the human imagination; and they travel this world alone. A universal paradigm shift has occurred in the methods and means available to child predators in pursuit of their prey; and as such a universal paradigm shift has occurred on the preventative tactics that we employ in our efforts to protect our nation's youth against these predators.

The content of my presentation will address the ramifications of this universal shift as our nation's youth explore the wonders of the Internet. We truly are a global economy and as such our nation's youth are cyber citizens engaging in online activities. Those activities include socialization (two way communication whether that be through email, chat or instant messaging), games, shopping, entertainment and education.

I will be addressing the role of education and youth empowerment and the need to empower our nations youth with the appropriate tools to minimize the number of predatory acts predicated against them. It is imperative that a proactive well-balanced approach be deployed to support the challenge of embracing the activities of our nation's youth online.

Progress in Police Responses to Violence Against Women

Examining Factors That Reduce Domestic Violence Assaults: The Impact of a Specialized Domestic Violence Police Unit
Paul C. Friday and Jen Hartman

Using a sample of domestic violence reports to the police in Charlotte, NC from 2003 this study focuses on the recidivist offending and repeat reported re-victimization of cases processed through a specialized DV Unite compared with cases handled by regular patrol. The study controls for the fact that the DV Unit handles more serious charges and prior involvement in prior domestic violence incidents. The prevalence, incidence and severity of future events are studied and policy implications are discussed. The research finds that: The DV Unit selects the most serious and severe cases as designed; The DV Unit significantly impacts whether suspects have new domestic violence incidents as reported to the police. Despite being a greater risk for recidivism because of the seriousness of the initial incident and prior domestic violence charges, DV Unit suspects had lower offending prevalence in the future; Suspects processed through the DV Unit have fewer future incidents that suspects processed through regular patrol procedures.

Public Safety Communications: Can They Hear Each Other?

A Prototype Public Safety Cognitive Radio for Universal Interoperability
Charles W. Bostian

Virginia Tech's Center for Wireless Telecommunications in collaboration with Innovative Wireless Technologies (IWT) and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) is developing a software cognitive engine for public safety applications that will turn any frequency and modulation capable software defined radio into a public safety cognitive radio (PSCR) with significant interoperability. The first prototype will interoperate with several common public safety waveforms on the 150 MHz, 450, and 800 MHz bands. The PSCR will respond to the commands of a properly authenticated operator by configuring the radio for whatever combinations of waveform, protocol, operating frequency, and networking are required. In scan mode, the PSCR will search a selected set of public safety bands, identify the networks that it finds, and present the results in an easy-to-use display on a laptop screen. To join a given network, the operator will select that network on the display. In gateway mode, the PSCR will function as a translator, linking two or more networks using different bands, frequencies or waveforms and configuring itself to optimize its performance for each network.

In the course of describing our work, this presentation reviews the basic concept of a cognitive radio as an intelligent software package (the cognitive engine) controlling a software defined radio (the radio platform). Like a human operator, the cognitive engine “reads the radio's meters” (surveys the radio environment, identifying the stations and waveforms it finds there, assessing the propagation environment, determining channel conditions, etc.,) and “turns the radio's knobs” (specifies center frequency, transmitter power, modulation type, etc.) to create needed waveforms, establish and maintain the communications links, and deliver near optimum quality of service. While all of this happens, the radio remains in compliance with FCC regulations and standard operating procedures. Architecturally, the process consists of two nested loops in which the software observes and models the radio environment, tests the models for validity, and uses tested models to determine the radio settings. To aid the reasoning process, the radio uses a memory system to remember any past actions that can be used again or to learn from them. We present recent results from our work, showing how a GNU radio platform can interoperate with commercial public safety radios.

Land Mobile Radio Connectivity via Shared Satellite IP Networks and the Internet Test and Evaluation Project
Robert Griffiths

The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center—Northwest's (NLECTC-NW) Land Mobile Radio Connectivity via Shared Satellite IP Networks and the Internet Test and Evaluation Project goals were to conduct limited, impartial, test and evaluation of commercial off-the-shelf equipment and affordable commercial satellite systems that might prove successful in linking remote public safety communications systems to larger urban, land-based, communications networks.

Tests were conducted using commercially available Voice over Internet Protocol gateway equipment, satellite communications services, and network element equipment. The testing and evaluation focused on public safety land mobile radio communications links between urban areas and vastly remote Alaskan communities.

The tests evaluated and demonstrated voice over Internet protocol interface units, voice-grade satellite communications (Satcom) services, as well as Satcom optimized virtual private network products. This presentation describes the limited, impartial, test and evaluation of commercial off-the-shelf equipment that could potentially provide these links. The presentation will summarize the test results that indicate remote users of “rural” land mobile radio systems can be connected to users on the current mainland Alaska Land Mobile Radio system (and other similar systems)—with some caveats. Testing determined that connections can utilize low-cost shared satellite Internet protocol (IP) connectivity and the Internet, given highly tailored network design and equipment choices. Although the tested technology implementation may not meet all federal agency security requirements without additional equipment, identified communications links provided a promising and adequately secure transport means for local, regional, and state and public safety agencies.

Project54
Thomas Miller

Project54 is a collaborative effort between the University of New Hampshire and the New Hampshire Department of Safety, funded by the U.S Department of Justice. Since its inception in 1999, this statewide demonstration has grown into a nationally recognized law enforcement technology program. The Project54 system integrates electronic devices in police cruisers into a single system with a speech user interface. The system also integrates cruisers and headquarters into an agency-wide data network. The Project54 system has already been deployed in hundreds of cruisers in state and local police agencies throughout New Hampshire and across the nation. It is also being adapted for use by other first responders. Current program highlights include: continued roll-out of the Project54 system in NH and elsewhere, with the goal of making Project54 an off-the-shelf, nationally available system; formal laboratory simulator and field studies of the impact of the Project54 system on officer efficiency and safety, leading to interface design improvements; development of software and hardware components to effectively manage multiple radios in a single vehicle and to patch disparate radio systems for communications interoperability; and development and testing of a system to use digital television channels, licensed to public television stations, to broadcast high-bandwidth data to public safety vehicles in the field.

Concurrent Panel, Tuesday, 1:50 PM - 3:15 PM

Is the Party Over? An Examination of the Nightclub and Rave Scene With Respect to Drug Use and Crime

Club Drug Use and Drug Acquisition in New York City Club Subcultures
Brian C. Kelly and Jeffrey T. Parsons

Young adult involvement in club subcultures has spanned over three decades and the connection of club subcultures to drug use endures. This presentation provides an overview of contemporary drug use in NYC club subcultures. Using mixed-methods data from the Club Drugs and Health Study, the authors provided a descriptive epidemiological profile of drugs among young adults who attend clubs. The authors present prevalence data from a sample of club-going young adults recruited through time-space sampling methods to identify lifetime and recent rates of club use within club subcultures. In addition, the authors discuss mixed-methods data from a cohort of 400 young adults reporting recent club drug use (e.g. MDMA, Ketamine, Cocaine, GHB, Methamphetamine, and LSD). Results suggest high rates of drug use across the gamut of the pharmacoepia, though cocaine and MDMA are the primary drugs. Drug-using young adults who frequent dance clubs area a population engaged in extensive poly-drug use. The authors use qualitative data to describe the social contexts of drug use within these subcultures. This data suggest network-based drug acquisition practices and underscores distancing by club drug users. The authors highlight the public health significance of the use of club drugs within these subcultures.

Attacking the Demand Side of Prostitution: Is There a Deterrent Effect?

A Large Specific Deterrent Effect of Arrest for Patronizing a Prostitute
Devon D. Brewer, John J. Potterat, Stephen Q. Muth, and John M. Roberts, Jr.

Prior research suggests that arrest, compared with no police detection, of some types of offenders does not decrease the chances they will reoffend. We assessed the specific deterrent effect of arrest for patronizing a street prostitute in Colorado Springs by comparing the incidence of arrest for clients of prostitutes first detected through public health surveillance with the incidence of rearrest for clients first detected by police arrest. Although these sets of clients were demographically and behaviorally similar, arrest reduced the likelihood of a subsequent arrest by approximately 70%. In other areas of the US, arrest did not appear to displace a client's patronizing. Thus, our results suggest that apprehending clients decreases their patronizing behavior substantially.

Social Justice, Health Education, Program Planning for Individuals in the Sex Trade and the Demand
Norma Hotaling

Since March of 1995, the San Francisco Office of the District Attorney's First Offender Prostitution Program (FOPP), a collaborative with SAGE and the San Francisco Police Department, has diverted over 7,000 solicitors of prostitutes from the court system and offered them a unique educational and rehabilitative experience in lieu of criminal prostitution. The First Offender Prostitution Program was the 1998 recipient of the Ash Institute for Democratic Governance & Innovation award. The program has been replicated in jurisdictions throughout the U.S., Canada and abroad. Also referred to as the John's School, The First Offender Prostitution Program is designed and facilitated by individuals formerly involved in the sex trade. It is a restorative justice program designed to funnel money raised in class fees back into programs for prostituted women and girls, offering treatment, recovery and a way out. This collaboration between the Justice system, the Health Department, Domestic violence and therapeutic community, concerned neighborhood groups and Prostitution survivors are intent upon reducing the number of outstanding prostitution warrants in the court system; preventing and intervening early with those involved in prostitution rather than relying on criminal prosecution and sanctions; addressing neighborhood crimes linked to prostitution (i.e.-drugs, violence, pimping, etc.); addressing the root causes of prostitution such as violence, sexual exploitation, poverty and misogyny; focusing on the highest users of the medical, social, mental health and criminal justice systems; and utilizing prostitution survivors as peer educators to rehabilitate and reintegrate disenfranchised and disadvantaged women, girls & men.

This mission is being accomplished through creating a multi-pronged approach which includes advocacy, information campaigns, policy discussions, and interventions focusing on both supply (prostitute) and demand (customer). Also, collaborations are created with CBO's that assist women and girls escaping prostitution in acquiring services such as housing, medical care, substance abuse treatment and vocational training.

The First Offender Prostitution program recognizes the need for developing programs that address the core issues in relation to Men and Boys: Power dynamic of male/female relationships; Perception of women and girls as objects; Physical and sexual exploitation (i.e.-date rape, childhood sexual abuse, domestic violence, etc.); Attitudes used by current prostitute users to justify their actions; Increase collaboration and integration of these issues with organizations (schools, CBO's, churches, criminal justice, etc…) to prevent men from exploiting and victimizing women.

The First Offender Prostitution program recognizes the need to create an infrastructure of services that work to rehabilitate and reintegrate Women and Girls: Emergency shelters, safe houses, and supportive housing; Utilize prostitution survivors as peer educators; Establish data bank of resources; Medical care and vocational training; Conduct research on the harm of prostitution; Media campaigns to raise public awareness; Change social, economic and political structures which generate prostitution; Increase women's and girls' employment opportunities; Improve educational levels and eradicate illiteracy.

Improving the Success Rate of the Analysis of Compromised DNA Evidence

Scientific and Management Issues Related to the Identification of the World Trade Center Remains
Robert C. Shaler

With the recent finding of bones from the Deutsch Bank in lower Manhattan, the World Trade Center (WTC) identification effort continues. Clearly, this has been the most heart-wrenching and emotional task any laboratory or agency could face. Importantly, agencies and people bonded to do the best job possible under impossible circumstances. From the beginning, no one expected the work would be completed quickly. And knowing the complexity, no one expected it would be free from conflict or mistakes. These were a given from the outset.

The political climate in New York under Mayor Giuliani and later Mayor Bloomberg were probably the best that could be expected under those circumstances, in that they mostly left the laboratory alone to perform its duty. Nevertheless, there existed a climate of expectation with respect to the priority of body identification that interfered with ability of the laboratory to perform as efficiently as possible. From the day of the attacks on the World Trade Center, a number of seemingly unrelated issues combined to impede the identification effort. Although these issues never led specifically to misidentifications, they sometimes delayed the ability to make identifications. Management and scientific issues created situations that often delayed the DNA analysis of samples not the least of which was the absence of a mass disaster plan for the DNA laboratory. The perceptions of the public, the media, the families and political officials sometimes combined to impede the identification effort. IT issues arose that impeded the work dramatically, and the strictly scientific problems related to the quality of the DNA obtained from the remains also extended the scope of the work.

The quality of the remains posed serious problems. The initial STR testing results showed that a significant percent of the remains would not permit a sufficiently robust statistical assessment to be made in order to make identifications of most of the victims. This necessitated an intensive and grueling schedule of research and validation of new testing methods in order to coax reliable genetic information from the badly decomposed remains.

Forensic Applications of the LINEAR ARRAY Mitochondrial DNA HVI/HVII Region-Sequence Typing Kit
Henry A. Erlich and Cassandra Calloway

The analysis of DNA polymorphisms in forensics specimens can provide valuable information for individual identification by comparing the DNA profile with that of a reference sample. About 20 years ago, we carried out the PCR amplification and genotyping of the polymorphic HLA-DQA1 locus with oligonucleotide hybridization probes in the first US forensic application of DNA analysis (Pennsylvania vs. Pestinikis). Subsequently, we used this typing system for the first post-conviction exoneration (Dotson case) and then, using immobilized probe technology, launched the first forensic typing kit in 1990. Such sequence based typing systems as well as those that target length polymorphisms are now well established methods of forensic analysis. For some specimens, however, the amount of DNA is too low or the DNA is too degraded to allow genetic analysis with chromosomal gene polymorphisms. One approach to the analysis of such “compromised” samples is to analyze polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA. Each cell contains only two copies (maternal and paternal) of a chromosomal gene but contains hundreds to thousands of copies of mitochondrial genomes, all inherited from the mother.

The mtDNA genome is around 16Kb, with most of the polymorphism localized to two regions, the hypervarible regions HVI and HVII (each around 400 bp). Over the past several years, we have developed and optimized a rapid method for the analysis of sequence variation in the HVI and HVII regions of the human mitochondrial genome utilizing PCR amplification and immobilized probe hybridization. The current, commercial version of this assay consists of two primer pairs for co-amplification of HVI and HVII regions and 33 probes immobilized in 31 lines for detection of sequence variation within 10 segments of HVI and HVII. Using this rapid, informative assay, samples can be quickly screened to identify the most probative samples. The remaining PCR product generated for the linear array assay can be used for sequence analysis if necessary. Additionally, the LINEAR ARRAYTM Mitochondrial DNA HVI/HVII Region-Sequence Typing Kit consumes 50-75% less sample extract than sequence analysis because the HVI and HVII regions are amplified simultaneously rather than in two or four separate reactions. This screening strategy has been utilized by a Swedish Laboratory for casework since 1998 as well as for the identification of Croatian mass grave remains; results from these analyses and others will be presented here. Additionally, several population studies were conducted to determine the discrimination power of this panel of HVI/HVII probes, including typing and sequencing 689 samples from four different populations. The estimated discrimination power of the LINEAR ARRAY mtDNA HVI/HVII Region-Sequence Typing Kit for African Americans is ~0.9927 compared to 0.9977 for HVI/HVII sequencing estimated from a population database consisting of ~200 African Americans. Some populations have a few relatively common mtDNA HVI/HVII sequences, which limits the informativeness of current mtDNA typing procedures. To increase the power of discrimination, we are currently co-amplifying segments in other regions of the mtDNA genome and genotyping with an additional panel of immobilized probes. The incorporation of these additional polymorphic regions in the typing system should significantly increase the Pd of mtDNA typing, making it a simple, rapid, and informative method for analyzing compromised forensic specimens.

National Evaluation of Free to Grow: Head Start Partnerships to Promote Substance-Free Communities

Assessing Program Implementation in the National Evaluation of Free to Grow
Todd Rogers

Dr. Rogers will discuss how the Free to Grow (FTG) model calls for Head Start (HS) agencies to augment their child development programming with a variety of strategies aimed at strengthening both the family and the surrounding community. Evaluating implementation required an assessment of the individual strategies as well as changes in the HS agency's orientation, philosophy, and partnering activities. Several methods were employed to measure implementation: surveys of agency staff and community partners, activity tracking reports, site visits, and structured interviews. Relative to matched comparison HS agencies, FTG sites showed enhanced implementation of such strategies as case management, leadership development, and community action, particularly with regard to use of validated assessment instruments and “branded” curricula and program approaches. Additionally, FTG sites experienced greater involvement of non-traditional partners (e.g., law enforcement) in their intervention efforts. These results demonstrate successful uptake of key features of the program model that distinguish FTG grantees from traditional HS agencies.

Building Community and Revitalizing Neighborhoods Through Free to Grow
Michael Sparks

Mr. Sparks, who is the former Associate Director of the Free to Grow National Program Office, will reflect on the FTG program model and implementation processes in light of the results of the evaluation. Special reference will be made to Free to Grow's community strengthening strategies, including partnerships with local law enforcement agencies, community revitalization and community action for policy change.

Design of the National Evaluation of Free to Grow: Head Start Partnerships to Promote Substance-free Communities
Mark Wolfson

Dr. Wolfson will describe the evaluation design and methods for this large, complex, quasi-experimental community trial. This will include a discussion of the special challenges inherent in evaluating a program which uses multiple family and community-strengthening strategies, with the mix of strategies varying across sites. Implications for the field of criminal justice research and evaluation will be discussed.

Evidence-Based Practices for Probation: Intermediate Measures and Results

Behavioral Management Supervision: Results from a Placed-Based Experiment
Faye S. Taxman

Using the tenets of evidence-based practices, that state of Maryland has crafted and adopted a proactive community supervision model. The four tenets are: use risk screening tools to identify high risk offenders, use risk screening tools to develop appropriate behavioral contracts that are based on promoting prosocial behaviors, use incentives and sanctions to reinforce the behavioral contracts, and work collaboratively with offenders to reinforce positive behaviors. A randomized matched design was used to assess the effectiveness of the new strategy with a sample size of 548. Study findings include reduced technical violations and reduced rearrest. The implementation strategy will be discussed since it defines a new strategy for organizational change.

Concurrent Panel, Tuesday, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Stalking: The Link to Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault

An Overview of Stalking
Michelle M. Garcia

This presentation will focus on the definition of stalking and introduce the intersection of stalking and domestic violence and sexual assault. Topics covered will include the prevalence of stalking, the impact of stalking on victims, and the lethality of stalking.

Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003: Update on Research and Data Collections

Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act: Sexual Violence Reported by Current and Former Inmates
Allen J. Beck

The presentation will provide an overview of activities underway at the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJA) to develop and test methodologies for measuring sexual assault as reported by current and former inmates. As mandated by the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003, BJS has been directed to measure the incidence and prevalence of sexual assault within the nation's correctional facilities. Since passage of the Act, BJS has been developing methods to survey current and former inmates and youth in juvenile correctional facilities. The presentation will focus on the Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview methods of collecting self-reported victimization. The presentation will also include a discussion of the 2005 Survey on Sexual Violence, which was based on administrative records in all State prison systems, the Federal Bureau of Prisons, and a representative sample of local jail jurisdictions.

The National Prisoner Survey on Sexual Assault (NPS-SA)
Christopher P. Krebs

The Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) of 2003 (P.L. 108-79) requires the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) to develop new national data collections on the incidence and prevalence of sexual assault within correctional facilities. The Act requires BJS to survey each year not less than 10% of all federal, state, and local correctional facilities and to provide facility-level estimates of sexual assault for each sampled facility. To fully implement PREA, BJS has developed a multiple-measure, multiple-method data collection strategy.

BJS is developing and testing a variety of collection methodologies for obtaining information directly from inmates on their experiences with sexual assault. For the National Prisoner Survey on Sexual Assault Pilot and National Studies involving adult inmates, BJS has entered into a cooperative agreement with RTI International (RTI) to develop, test, and field the audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) methods, in which respondents interact with a computer-assisted questionnaire using a touch-screen and follow audio instructions delivered via headphones. The use of ACASI is expected to overcome many of the limitations of previous studies of sexual violence within correctional facilities.

This presentation will cover research being conducted by RTI and BJS, who will discuss their experiences in developing and testing these new collection methods. They will provide an overview of the survey questionnaires, consent procedures, sample designs, and interviewing protocols. The session will conclude with a discussion of preliminary findings.

Research of the Prison Rape Elimination Commission
Richard Tewksbury

This presentation will focus on identifying and discussing the current research activities of the Prison Rape Elimination Commission, as they fulfill the mandates of the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003. The research activities of the Commission will be highlighted, with special emphasis on the statutory requirements imposed by the Act, and the ways that Commission activities complement and add to those of the other federal partners. Updates on the status of research efforts, both sponsored by the Commission and in partnership with other entities will be discussed. Collaborative efforts between Commission staff and outside researchers will be highlighted with a focus on how and why such collaborations are advantageous. Additionally, presentation will emphasize both competing and complementary models of conceptual operationalization, data collection and interpretation. The role of research in fulfilling the broader mandate of the Prison Rape Elimination Commission to establish national standards for correctional facilities will serve as the organizing principle to the presentation.

Workshop: Performance Monitoring for the Management of Effective Programs

Everyday Evaluation: Performance Monitoring for the Management of Effective Programs
Mark W. Lipsey

This session is designed to provide an overview of program evaluation methods for monitoring the performance of intervention programs intended to reduce recidivism for juvenile and adult offenders. Ample evidence indicates that more programs are ineffective because they are poorly implemented than because they are incapable of affecting recidivism rates. Monitoring program performance and taking corrective action when it falls below appropriately formulated standards is one of the most effective and efficient ways to improve outcomes. Taking an evidence-based practice perspective, this session will cover issues and approaches to determining appropriate standards, defining and collecting performance data, and diagnosing deficiencies that undermine effectiveness.

Internet Crimes Against Persons or Institutions

The Undercover Multipurpose Anti-Spoofing Kit (unMask)
Sudhir Aggarwal

Internet criminals are increasingly preying upon email users by using complex and sophisticated spoofing techniques, generically termed “phishing,” to trick users into revealing sensitive and personal information. For example, they may use fake but realistic emails to drive users to bogus websites where they capture passwords and credit card numbers. This presentation describes an ongoing project called unMask, that seeks to develop a set of software tools that can enable law enforcement agents to reduce the time and effort needed to investigate such incidents of phishing and identity theft. UnMask will deconstruct the email and attached source code, and investigate possible discrepancies. The results are stored as an actionable evidentiary trail and presented as a report that law enforcement agents can use to develop additional viable leads and for subsequent prosecution.

Catching Criminals in the Age of Triage: Technological and Task Force Solutions in Identity Theft Cases
Richard Goldberg

Electronic commerce has greatly increased the speed with which consumers can purchase products and obtain loans, and greatly increased the speed with which those same consumers can become identity theft victims. This rapidity has also been a cause of the growing number of identity theft crimes. The increase in occurrences has caused all institutions in this field - banks, corporations, credit card issuers, and law enforcement - to prioritize their cases, spending their scarce resources on the “important” crimes and writing off the others.

This triage significantly hampers the effort to catch and deter identity thieves. Knowing that law enforcement cannot investigate small thefts, sophisticated thieves keep their thefts small, moving through jurisdictions to increase their volume of fraudulent transactions and their profit. The information needed to catch these identity theft gangs and their leaders is then spread among so many agencies that the likelihood of apprehension drops significantly.

Mere coordination amongst law enforcement agencies, historically done through the periodic task force model, is inefficiently slow and limited. Much data in this field is not even reported to law enforcement as victims deal directly with banks or credit card companies and do no further reporting.

One program developed by the United States Attorney's Office for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania is RITNET, the Regional Identity Theft Network. RITNET is a web-based law enforcement database, accessible through RISS. This system is directed to coordinating data from local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies, across jurisdictional lines, together with information from private industry and the Federal Trade Commission. RITNET will identify for law enforcement those triaged “small” cases which are, in fact, not small cases but the hallmark of organized gangs.

Evaluation of Forensic Methods for Ballistic Evidence

Surface Topography Analysis for a Feasibility Assessment of a National Ballistics Imaging Database
Susan M. Ballou

A study was conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to assess the feasibility, accuracy, and technical capability of a national ballistics database of casing and bullet images. Main questions addressed in this research was whether the identity of suspect crime guns can be based on casing information only, whether identifying guns and gun types are affected by different types of ammunition, which casing region (firing pin impression, breech face impression, ejector marks) serves as the best gun-discriminator and how does 3-D topographical imaging methods compare with the technologies currently in use. Research addressing these questions will be offered during this panel session.

A Statistical Validation of the Individuality of Guns Using 3D Images of Bullets
Benjamin Bachrach

Weapon identification, its procedures and methodologies, have been developed over the past 100 years. These procedures are routinely used by firearms examiners and are the basis of their testimony in court. As currently practiced, these procedures involve a firearms examiner looking at the surface of bullets and attempting to determine whether they were fired by the same gun. In reaching such conclusions, the firearms examiner relies mostly on his/her training and judgment, making current matching procedures mostly subjective. The development of DNA identification techniques and the level of accuracy achievable in the estimation of error rates associated with DNA identification has raised the expectations of the quantitative precision that may be achieved in forensic analysis. Furthermore, recent Supreme Court decisions such as Daubert and Kumho are making it increasingly necessary to further formalize the presentation of scientific evidence in court. The subjective nature of current identification criteria, together with the inability of existing matching methodologies to estimate the probability of error associated with identification may pose a serious problem for the use of firearms evidence in court. In response to these concerns, Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) conducted the present study under the support of the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The first objective of this study was to improve on the state of the art of automated ballistic analysis systems, and to make such advances available to the law enforcement community. The second objective of this project was to develop and validate methodologies for ballistic identification, including the estimation of the probability-of-error in the identification process.

The scope of the present study is unprecedented in the arena of firearms examination. Over the three years of its duration, a 3D-based ballistic analysis platform capable of handling both pristine and damaged bullets was developed and manufactured. The barrels used in this study were selected to span the spectrum of weapons commonly found in crime scenes. More than 2800 bullets fired by over 100 barrels of 9 different brands were collected over the duration of this study. This process took place over a period of more than two years, in dozens of visits to volunteer firearms examiner's facilities who made their water tanks and time available for this purpose. Three different organizations assisted us in this project: Washington State Police (thanks to the support of Evan Thompson), the Federal Bureau of Investigation Forensic Laboratory in Quantico VA, (thanks to the support of Paul Tangren and other FBI personnel), and Baltimore County Police (thanks to the support of Michael Thomas and Mark Ensor). We are extremely grateful to these firearms examiners who were willing to volunteer their time to this effort. This project would not have been possible without them. The main conclusions of this research will be presented as part of this talk.

Concurrent Panel, Wednesday, 08:30 AM - 10:00 AM

Recent Findings for Improving Batterer Intervention

Supplemental Psychological Treatment for Participants in Domestic Violence Counseling
Edward W. Gondolf

Research on domestic violence perpetrators exposes a significant association of psychological disorders with dropout from domestic violence counseling and reassault of female partners. State guidelines for domestic violence counseling recommend assessment for psychological disorders and referral to psychological treatment. This presentation reports on a demonstration project that tests the utility of screening domestic violence perpetrators for psychological disorders and referring those who screen positive to psychological treatment in addition to domestic violence counseling. A formative evaluation of the implementation of the demonstration project will be presented along with a quantitative description of treatment delivery.

The formative evaluation consists of a qualitative summary of direct observations, meeting notes, and staff interviews. Several organizational and agency problems were associated with implementation delays and inconsistent referrals: concerns raised by the Institutional Review Board, initial objections from the district attorney, misappropriation of funds by the DV counseling program, subsequent financial crisis at the DV counseling program, DV program staff's failure to follow protocol, sick-leave by the psychological clinic director, and billing problems at the clinic. The formative evaluation also exposed agency conflicts in terms of different priorities, assumptions, and procedures, and revealed the complexity and complications associated with multiple components across agencies.

A quantitative analysis of treatment delivery was conducted with three comparative samples of the men who screened positive and were referred to psychological treatment. Nearly half of the 916 men entering the batterer program over 1½-year period (N=477) scored positive on the Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI score>62), and these men were more likely to have risk markers associated with reassault than the men who scored negative on the BSI. The initial 181 men were referred for a mental health evaluation on a voluntary basis, the next 167 were referred during a transitional phase toward mandated referral, and 167 men received a mandatory referral under the supervision of a case-manager (i.e., failure to comply was subject to further court sanctions).

According to men's self-reports at 4 weeks post-intake (68% response rate), there was an increase in compliance under the court-mandate, but only a small portion of referred men eventually received treatment. Specifically, 6% of the voluntarily-referred men made an appointment for a psychological evaluation, 29% during the transitional phase, and 46% under a court-mandate. However, less than a quarter (23%) of the mandated-referrals actually obtained an evaluation; 15% were recommended for treatment; and 8% attended a treatment session.

Approximately two-thirds of the men were diagnosed with adjustment disorders, and the remaining men with depressive disorders, impulse control disorder, or drug dependence. The findings highlight the organizational and operational barriers to implementing supplemental psychological referral, the crucial need for a casemanager and system coordinator, and the futility of voluntary referrals. The BSI screening may over-identify psychological disorders, and men with the most severe disorders may not be complying with the referrals. Greater integration of psychological treatment with DV counseling may be warranted to insure greater compliance and to monitor supplemental treatment

The Transtheoretical Model and Processes of Resistance in Domestic Violence Offenders
Deborah A. Levesque

Domestic violence programs tend to be highly structured, psycho-educational, and “one-size-fits-all,” neglecting individual differences in motivation that can affect program effectiveness and participation rates. The Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM), in contrast, understands change as progress, over time, through a series of stages and posits that we are more likely to reduce resistance, facilitate treatment engagement, and produce behavior change when interventions are individualized and matched to individual stage of change, rather than one-size-fits-all. The model systematically integrates four theoretical dimensions central to change: 1) stage of change; 2) decisional balance; 3) processes of change; and 4) self-efficacy. In an effort to improve the TTM's power to explain and facilitate change, we have begun to examine “processes of resistance” as a separate dimension that can influence stage progression and regression. In the first study reported here, a measure of resistance was developed and administered to 346 adult male domestic violence offenders in treatment. The study yielded a 38-item measure that assesses eight dimensions of resistance: (1) System Blaming, (2) Problems with Partner, (3) Problems with Alliance, (4) Social Justification, (5) Hopelessness, (6) Isolation, (7) Psychological Reactance, and (8) Passive Reactance. In a second study, the resistance measure was administered to a separate sample of 358 domestic violence offenders at treatment intake and two months later to examine the relationship between resistance and time in treatment, psychological and physical abuse post-intake, and stage progression and regression. Only System Blaming, Problems with Partner, and Hopelessness decreased from intake to follow-up. Individuals who engaged in mild and severe physical aggression post-intake scored significantly higher on all types of resistance but System Blaming and Problems with Alliance. Men who progressed from the Pre-Action stages to Action showed significant decreases in Problems with Alliance, Social-Justification, and Passive Reactance from intake to follow-up. Conversely, regression from Action to Pre-Action showed significant increases on these same dimensions, along with Partner Blame and Isolation. Results suggest that the types of resistance that traditionally have received the most attention in batterer treatment (e.g., Partner Blaming, System Blaming) are relatively unrelated to behavior. We may need to do more to monitor other types of resistance, and develop strategies for dealing with them. Motivational interviewing offers one promising approach. Other approaches identified by domestic violence experts for this project are briefly presented. Assessing and managing resistance more effectively can complement established practices and potentially increase the impact of programs for domestic violence offenders.

Applications of Operations Research to the Criminal Justice System

Using a Simulation Model to Examine the Allocation of Technology to Improve the Criminal Justice System
Roderick H. MacDonald

The criminal justice system in the United States is large, complex and involves the activities of a number of independent entities. These independent entities range from state and local police departments, to DAs, courts, jails, prisons, probation, parole and incarceration alternatives. A criminal passing through the system may come into contact with all these entities at one time or another. The introduction of different types of technology into the criminal justice system has the potential to increase the efficiency, in different parts of the system, reduce crime, and save money in the long run. A system dynamics computer simulation model was developed with assistance of experts working in the criminal justice system at the local and state level.

Incarcerated Mothers, Their Children, and the Nexus With Foster Care

Incarcerated Women, Their Children, and the Nexus with Foster Care
Robert LaLonde, Susan George, Roland Holst, and Rekha Varghese

This study shows how state administrative data can be used to assess the relationships between the criminal justice and child welfare systems. After matching corrections data on female offenders from Illinois to the state's child welfare records, we examine the incidence of childhood foster care spells among incarcerated women, the incidence of female prisoners having their own children in foster care, and how time in prison or jail is associated with different foster care outcomes, such as the loss of parental rights.

Benefits of Drug and Alcohol Free Housing for Ex-Offenders

The Impact of Alcohol and Drug-Free Housing on Offender Outcomes
John Hartner

Alcohol and drug-free housing serves as a bridge during the difficult transition from correctional facilities and residential treatment back to the community. Such housing is critical to recovery and often the difference between relapse and long-term stability. In addition to supporting abstinence and continuing participation in a recovery program, it addresses the criminogenic risks of negative peer associations and criminal attitudes and beliefs through the development of a pro-social support network.

Washington County is Oregon's fastest growing county with a population of approximately 480,000. It is comprised primarily of suburban communities to the west of the Portland metropolitan area, with an economy dominated by high-tech businesses and agriculture. The county lacks the older, affordable housing more readily found in a large city, making it difficult for low-income persons to find housing. When a corrections client is released from an institution or residential treatment program, this lack of affordable housing, combined with a criminal history and lack of employment, makes accessing safe housing even more challenging.

In recognition of the importance of housing for offenders, Washington County Community Corrections began exploring ways to expand housing with local non-profit partners. The workshop will review the agency's efforts, which have resulted in the number of alcohol and drug-free beds expanding from 65 to 235 in the past four years.

Part of the County's success is due to a BJA grant that was implemented starting in January 2004. Grant funds were sub-contracted through an RFP process to four agencies. Three agencies provide alcohol and drug-free housing directly, and the fourth develops Oxford Houses. Oxford Houses are self-managed/self-supported houses with 6 to 9 residents who agree to live by certain rules, including a commitment to remaining clean and sober.

NIJ is in the first year of a three year evaluation of the BJA-funded project. The study is examining the relationship of alcohol and drug-free housing on drug abuse, criminal activity, and self-sufficiency. It is exploring the differential effects of offender risk levels, the influence of different combinations of services, and the relative costs and benefits of the various housing models. There is a special focus on the impact of Oxford Houses. The workshop will provide an overview of the evaluation, along with preliminary findings.

Concurrent Panel, Wednesday, 10:15 AM - 11:45 AM

Terrorism Databases: Findings and Practical Applications

Using Longitudinal Open Source Terrorism Data to Assess the Impact of Counter Terrorism Policies and Key Historical Events
Gary LaFree and Laura Dugan

Over the past three years we have developed a longitudinal open source Global Terrorism Data (GTD) base on terrorist events that now contains about 70,000 incidents from 1970 to 1997. Because these data include the date of incidents, they provide a quasi-experimental platform for statistically assessing changes in terrorism rates following specific counter terrorist interventions or key historical events. In this paper we demonstrate three ways in which we have exploited this feature to assess the effects of interventions and events on subsequent terrorist activities: (1) the impact of several counter terrorist policies on the frequency of aerial hijacking in the United States and elsewhere; (2) the effect of five major British counter terrorist interventions in Northern Ireland from 1969 to 1992; and (3) the impact of a 1983 attack on the Orly Airport in Paris by the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA). In each case we use Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the impact of these interventions and events on the likelihood of new terrorist attacks. Our results for the aerial hijacking analysis show that metal detectors were effective in the prevention of hijackings, but their specific effect on terrorist hijackings was not significant. Our analysis of nationalist terrorist violence in Northern Ireland shows that the five British counter terrorist interventions we examined did not significantly reduce the risk of future attacks and in some cases actually increased attack risk. And our analysis of ASALA showed that the attack on Orly was followed by a significant decline in terrorist activities. We conclude with a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the GTD and the implications for further research.

The American Terrorism Study: The Use of Federal Indictments from FBI Terrorism Investigations for Expanded Data Collection
Brent L. Smith

The American Terrorism Study tracks the outcomes of federal criminal cases resulting from investigation under a FBI “terrorism enterprise” investigation. The study currently includes the records of over 600 terrorists indicted for over 8,000 offenses from 1980 through August 31, 2004. Most recently, the NIJ has funded research using this database as a source for expanded data collection on the spatial and temporal patterns of terrorists as well as the crimes committed in preparation for terrorist incidents. This presentation provides examples of the use of the ATS database to test hypotheses regarding preparatory behaviors, sequencing of preparatory conduct, and the behavior of indicted terrorists during the judicial process.

Correctional Officer Safety

Improving Correctional Officer Safety: Reducing Inmate Weapons
Paul J. Biermann

The purpose of this initiative was to assess the correctional environment to identify items that have potential to become unconventional weapons and develop safer alternatives. Examples of these unconventional weapons include sharpened toothbrushes, combs and padlocks placed in socks to be used as bludgeons. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) assembled a working group consisting of 15 members to gather historical data on unconventional weapons, estimates of the associated injuries and costs to the correctional system. The group was made up of corrections officials drawn from correctional systems and members from JHU/APL and the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health. The group collected and evaluated data on unconventional weapons used by inmates, selecting the top five unconventional weapons that could be addressed by design or material changes for further study. With guidance from the group's corrections officials, JHU/APL has lead the effort to redesign the source of these unconventional weapons. The overall goal was to modify the source design and/or materials so that the potential for its use as a weapon is negligible. The redesigned items have been demonstrated in prototype form. Implementation into the prison environment will be accomplished by licensing to a commercial manufacturer or production by prison industries.

Staff Safety In Corrections: National Issues and Trends Related to Inmates with Mental Illnesses and Infectious Diseases
Patricia L. Caruso

The Association of State Correctional Administrators (ASCA) is a professional association whose membership consists of directors of state departments of corrections, the Federal Bureau of Prisons, and the country's large urban correctional systems. A sub-committee of ASCA – the Staff Safety and Institutional Stability Committee – is charged with gathering and sharing the nation's best practices for maintaining staff safety and institutional stability. To this end, the Committee recently conducted two surveys on the topic of staff safety in correctional settings. The first survey examined promising practices related to working with inmates with mental illnesses, infectious diseases, or who are housed in special management units – from the perspective of each agency's Director. The second survey looked into these same areas, but from the perspective of line staff (corrections and probation/parole) working in the field. This interactive session will present the summary findings from these two surveys, followed by a discussion of the current trends and issues related to staff safety in the correctional workplace.

Applying Technology to Protect the Public from Concealed Weapons

Available Concealed Weapons Detection Systems for Law Enforcement
Peter J. Costianes

This presentation will present MMW and IR systems recently evaluated at the AFRL Test Facility funded by NIJ. An overview of the system functionality will be presented to include the underlying physics of operation, data processing and interpretation involved and results of the on-site testing at AFRL.

Current Research on Child Victimization

Recent Trends in Child Victimization
Christine Feller

This module will provide participants with an understanding of the mission, internet knowledge, and free services provided by the Exploited Child Unit (ECU). This presentation will illustrate recent trends in child sexual exploitation as reported to the CyberTipline. Additionally, it will highlight the services and findings of the Child Victim Identification Program. Specific case examples of child victimization will be utilized throughout this presentation to illustrate the learning objectives of this module.

Poly-Victims: A Concept for Targeting and Helping High Risk Children and Youth
David Finkelhor

Poly-victims are children with a large number of different kinds of victimization. They make up a substantial proportion of any group of children identified by a screening for an individual victimization type (such as victims of sexual abuse, witnessing domestic violence or bullying).Moreover, poly-victimization is an extremely powerful predictor of trauma symptoms and problem behavior. When taken into account, it substantially eclipses the influence of individual victimizations. New research suggests the importance for practitioners of identifying children who are experiencing such poly-victimization. This means that practitioners need to build mechanisms for screening for poly-victims into their contacts and investigations. The findings on poly-victimization also mean that researchers need to assess a wider range of victimizations in studies of children, rather than limiting assessment to one particular type, like sexual abuse. In fact, some of the existing research that argues for the long-term effects of single kinds of victimization may need to be reassessed in light of the evidence about poly-victimization and its impact.

This presentation will address the following issues: What is poly-victimization and how is it best defined?; What is the current research about the background and characteristics of poly-victims?; How does the concept of poly-victimization change our previous conceptions about child victimization trauma?; What are the best ways to assess for poly-victimization?; What are the implications of poly-victimization for investigation, treatment and intervention?; What are the implications of poly-victimization for prevention?

Much of the work on poly-victimization is based on a national survey of the experiences of over 2000 children and youth aged 2 to 17, the Developmental Victimization Survey (DVS). These children and youth were assessed with the newly developed Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ) that assesses 34 distinct forms of child maltreatment and victimization. Participants will learn about the JVQ and its national norms established with the DVS.

Findings from the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey
Janis Wolak

This presentation will describe findings from the second Youth Internet Safety Survey, a telephone survey of a national sample of 1500 youth Internet users, ages 10 to 17. The presenters will discuss the incidence of sexual solicitation, unwanted exposure to pornography and harassment among youth Internet users, the changes in the rates and dynamics of such incidents since the first Youth Internet Safety Survey conducted in 1999-2000, and the implications for prevention. The first and second Youth Internet Safety Surveys provide some of the first scientific information about online victimization among youth Internet users. The surveys were funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, OJJDP and the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children.

Concurrent Panel, Wednesday, 1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Prisoner Reentry

Findings From the Multi-Site Evaluation of SVORI
Pamela K. Lattimore

A five-year evaluation of the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) is currently underway that includes implementation, impact and economic components. Implementation assessment has been conducted through three program director surveys across all 89 SVORI programs. The impact evaluation is studying the effectiveness of 16 SVORI programs through multiple waves of offender interviews and administrative data. The economic analysis will focus on a subset of the impact programs and entails the collection of detailed cost data that will be combined with service provision and outcome data to assess the cost-effectiveness of the SVORI programs. This presentation will describe initial findings from the baseline pre-release survey and the 3-month post-release survey.

Evaluating the Fortune Society's Reentry Services
Douglas McDonald

The Fortune Society, a private organization founded in NYC in 1967, provides former prisoners (about 4500 admitted during 2005) a variety of services, including counseling, substance abuse treatment, residential housing, family support and parenting, health services (for HIV+ persons), and career development, among others. Abt Associates is presently evaluating the effectiveness of its programs in increasing employment and earnings as well as reducing recidivism and homelessness. This session will describe the Fortune Society's operations, the challenges to conducting strong evaluations of multi-service organizations, and the difficulties presented by the prevailing pattern of funding anti-crime programs through earmarked appropriations.

Prison Industries Enhancement Certification Program (PIECP): A National Evaluation of Prison Work Programs
Cindy J. Smith

This research was the first national empirical assessment of post release employment and recidivism effects based on legislative intent for inmates participating in Prison Industries Enhancement Certification Program (PIECP) as compared to participants in traditional industries (TI) and those involved in other than work (OTW) activities. Since 1979, the Bureau of Justice Assistance has funded various agencies to ensure state compliance with the legislative mandate of the Ashurst-Summers Act without the benefit of a national evaluation. The PIECP program has grown from 1,724 inmates employed in more than 80 industries to 5,103 inmates employed in over 200 industries across 36 states, and the inmates earned approximately $276.5 million with $162.3 million returned to the economy in the form of room and board, taxes, family support and victims' compensation.

A records review of outcomes for three matched samples, each of approximately 2200 inmates (n=6464), released from 46 prisons between 1996 and 2001 examines whether PIECP participants return to prison less frequently or enter more successful employment than otherwise similar inmates participating in traditional prison industries (TI) or other than work (OTW) activities while in prison. Additional analysis includes comparing gender, race, age at admission to prison, crime type, number of disciplinary reports, and length of incarceration.

The primary findings of this research are that inmates who worked in open-market jobs in PIECP were found to be significantly more successful in post-release employment. That is to say, they became tax-paying citizens quicker and remain in that status longer than TI and OTW releasees. Additionally, PIECP releasees had slower and reduced recidivism, as measured by arrest, conviction and incarceration, than TI and OTW releasees.

The research results suggest that work plays an integral part in successful re-entry upon release in terms of employment and recidivism. Additionally, the state and federal coiffeurs benefited from the taxes paid and the room and board collected. This suggests that increased efforts should be expended to increase private industry partnerships and PIECP jobs. This increase should be carefully monitored to be sure the program continues to enjoy success as a wider pool of inmates is included.

Technology, Research, and Practice: Introducing and Assessing a Multi-Disciplinary Domestic Violence Communication System

Domestic Violence Communications System Putting the Pieces Together to Stop Domestic Violence
Monica Kaiser, Pam Scanlon, and Katie Mugg

The presentation will include a short history of the DVCS and how it is currently used and by which agencies. In October of 1999, the San Diego Police Department received a grant from the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services to build a regional computer system (Domestic Violence Communications System-DVCS) to share information between the various agencies working toward significantly impacting and reducing domestic violence in San Diego County. The goal was to share information between law enforcement, courts, shelters, victim advocates, batterers' counselors, the District/City Attorney's Offices, Probation and Child Protective Services. By sharing information, each agency can more effectively assess the overall circumstances and needs, resulting in more appropriate responses and earlier intervention to break the domestic violence cycle.

The system software links facilities and streamlines communications between numerous agencies involved directly in domestic violence. It captures, and stores every report, action, incident and component of the family or individual. The system provides automated access to authorized information concerning the past history of victims, suspects and their families, from law enforcement, courts, social services, and others who interact with individuals involved in domestic violence. The users are able to view the family/relationship dynamics and assess particular needs and the degree of danger. It provides users with real-time information to better serve their clients.

Included in the presentation will be information on: System Requirements; Legal Requirements; Person Query; Case Contact; Alerts; Notifications; Batterers Treatment Reports.

Cutting-Edge Technologies to Deny Criminals Free Access to the Community

Surveillance Requirements to Recognize and Individualize People
Richard W. Vorder Bruegge

Video and other image-based surveillance systems are becoming more prevalent throughout the United States. In order for such systems to be effectively used in the identification of criminal suspects and other individuals, certain performance standards must be met. This presentation will discuss guidelines for closed-circuit television (CCTV) systems developed by the Scientific Working Group on Imaging Technology (SWGIT), which were designed to ensure that the individuals recorded by such systems could be identified. Although these guidelines were written to address CCTV systems installed at commercial establishments such as banks, the recommendations can also be applied to controlled access situations such as those at airports, government buildings, and sport and entertainment venues.

Once surveillance systems have captured facial images of individuals, there are multiple ways in which these images might be used. In some cases, automated facial recognition systems can be used to check individuals against established databases in real-time. In other cases, investigators can provide these images to news media for the purpose of soliciting public assistance in the identification of the individuals depicted therein. Finally, the images recovered from such systems may be submitted to a forensic laboratory along with images of known suspects for the purpose of an examination to determine if the subjects can be identified to the exclusion of all other individuals. The image quality necessary for each of these applications can vary, with the latter application typically requiring the highest possible image quality. This presentation will address those image quality issues.

The difference between biometrics and forensics will also be addressed during this presentation, including a discussion of facial recognition systems. The primary difference is that biometrics is geared toward pre-event situations – such as having an access control system verify that a person should be allowed to enter a facility - whereas forensics is geared toward post-event situations – for example, identifying the subject in a CCTV image who robbed a bank. The different requirements of these scenarios can be a major factor in determining the capabilities needed for a given surveillance system.

Code of the Street: Understanding Justice, Decency, Violence, and Aggression in the Inner City

The Code of the Streets
Elijah Anderson

Of all the problems besetting the poor inner-city black community, none is more pressing than that of interpersonal violence and aggression. It wreaks havoc daily with the lives of community residents and increasingly spills over into downtown and residential middle-class areas. Muggings, burglaries, carjackings, and drug-related shootings, all of which may leave their victims or innocent bystanders dead, as well as drug-related shootings are now common enough to concern all urban and many suburban residents. The inclination to violence springs from the circumstances of life among the ghetto poor—the lack of jobs that pay a living wage, the stigma of race, the fallout from rampant drug use and drug trafficking, and the resulting alienation and lack of hope for the future.

Simply living in such an environment places young people at special risk of falling victim to aggressive behavior. Although there are often forces in the community which can counteract the negative influences, by far the most powerful being a strong, loving, "decent" (as inner-city residents put it) family committed to middle-class values, the despair is pervasive enough to have spawned an oppositional culture, that of "the streets," whose norms are often consciously opposed to those of mainstream society. These two orientations—decent and street—socially organize the community, and their coexistence has important consequences for residents, particularly children growing up in the inner city. Above all, this environment means that even youngsters whose home lives reflect mainstream values—and the majority of homes in the community do—must be able to handle themselves in a street-oriented environment.

This is because the street culture has evolved what may be called a code of the streets, which amounts to a set of informal rules governing interpersonal public behavior, including violence. The rules prescribe both a proper comportment and the proper way to respond if challenged. They regulate the use of violence and so supply a rationale which allows those who are inclined to aggression to precipitate violent encounters in an approved way. The rules have been established and are enforced mainly by the street-oriented, but on the streets the distinction between street and decent is often irrelevant; everybody knows that if the rules are violated, there are penalties. Knowledge of the code is thus largely defensive; it is literally necessary for operating in public. Therefore, even though families with a decency orientation are usually opposed to the values of the code, they often reluctantly encourage their children's familiarity with it to enable them to negotiate the inner-city environment.

At the heart of the code is the issue of respect—loosely defined as being treated "right" or granted the deference one deserves. However, in the troublesome public environment of the inner city, as people increasingly feel buffeted by forces beyond their control, what one deserves in the way of respect becomes more and more problematic and uncertain. This in turn further opens the issue of respect to sometimes intense interpersonal negotiation. In the street culture, especially among young people, respect is viewed as almost an external entity that is hard-won but easily lost, and so must constantly be guarded. The rules of the code in fact provide a framework for negotiating respect. The person whose very appearance—including his clothing, demeanor, and way of moving—deters transgressions feels that he possesses, and may be considered by others to possess, a measure of respect. With the right amount, for instance, he can avoid "being bothered" in public. If he is bothered, not only may he be in physical danger but he has been disgraced or "dissed" (disrespected). Many of the forms that dissing can take might seem petty to middle-class people (maintaining eye contact for too long, for example), but to those invested in the street code, these actions become serious indications of the other person's intentions. Consequently, such people become very sensitive to advances and slights, which could well serve as warnings of imminent physical confrontation.

This hard reality can be traced to the profound sense of alienation from mainstream society and its institutions felt by many poor inner-city black people, particularly the young. The code of the streets is actually a cultural adaptation to a profound lack of faith in the police and the judicial system. The police are most often seen as representing the dominant white society and not caring to protect inner-city residents. When called, they may not respond, which is one reason many residents feel they must be prepared to take extraordinary measures to defend themselves and their loved ones against those who are inclined to aggression. Lack of police accountability has in fact been incorporated into the status system: the person who is believed capable of "taking care of himself" is accorded a certain deference, which translates into a sense of physical and psychological control. Thus the street code emerges where the influence of the police ends and personal responsibility for one's safety is felt to begin. Exacerbated by the proliferation of drugs and easy access to guns, this volatile situation results in the ability of the street-oriented minority (or those who effectively "go for bad") to dominate the public spaces.

Structure and Culture in African-American Adolescent Violence: A Partial

Test of the Code of the Street Thesis
Eric A. Stewart

Researchers studying the race-violence relationship have tended to focus on either structural or cultural explanations. Although both explanations are important, they tend to be incomplete. We draw on Anderson's “code of the street” thesis, which combines structural and cultural explanations to explain the high rates of violence among African American adolescents. Anderson argues that the street code, which supports the use of violence, is a cultural adaptation to negative neighborhood structural conditions, as well as family characteristics and racial discrimination. Using two waves of data from 720 African American adolescents from 259 neighborhoods, we investigated whether neighborhood context, family type, and discrimination influenced adoption of the street code. We also assessed whether the street code mediated the effects of neighborhood context, family characteristics, and racial discrimination on violent delinquency. Consistent with Anderson's hypotheses, neighborhood structural characteristics, living in a street family, and discrimination significantly predicted adopting the street code. Moreover, the street code mediated about one-fifth of neighborhood effects on violent delinquency, about one-fifth of the effect of racial discrimination, and about four percent of the effect of family characteristics on violent delinquency. Overall, the results suggest that neighborhood context, family characteristics, and racial discrimination directly influence adopting the street code, and partially influence violence indirectly through the street code.

Concurrent Panel, Wednesday, 3:15 PM – 4:45 PM

Strategies for Reducing Gang and Gun Violence: Findings from Project Safe Neighborhoods Cities

Attention Felons: Evaluating Project Safe Neighborhoods in Chicago
Andrew V. Papachristos, Tracey L. Meares, and Jeffrey Fagan

This research uses a quasi-experimental design to evaluate the impact of Project Safe Neighborhood (PSN) initiatives on neighborhood level crime rates in Chicago. Four interventions are analyzed: (1) increased federal prosecutions for convicted felons carrying or using guns, (2) the length of sentences associated with federal prosecutions, (3) supply-side firearm policing activities, and (4) social marketing of deterrence and social norms messages through justice-style offender notification meetings. Using an individual growth curve models and propensity scores to adjust for non-random group assignment, our findings suggest that several PSN interventions are associated with greater declines of homicide in the treatment neighborhoods as compared to the control neighborhoods. The largest effect is associated with the offender notification meetings that stress individual deterrence, normative change in offender behavior, and increasing views on legitimacy and procedural justice. Possible competing hypotheses and directions for individual-level analysis are also discussed.

Girls and Delinquency: New Findings and Recent Studies

Addressing Psychological Trauma with Girls in the Juvenile Justice System: Design and Methodology of the Girls in Recovery from Life Stress (GIRLS)
Julian Ford

Psychological trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are prevalent among youths in the juvenile justice system, but evidence-based treatments for PTSD with this population have not been developed. Trauma Affect Regulation: Guidelines for Education and Therapy (TARGET) is the sole promising evidence-informed treatment identified by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network for traumatized youths in the juvenile justice system. TARGET and its outcomes with adults will be described, and the design and methodology of a recently initiated OJJDP-funded randomized clinical trial of TARGET with delinquent girls will be discussed.

Issues in Assessing Risk with Delinquent Girls
Margaret A. Zahn, Susan Brumbaugh, and Colleen McCue

This presentation will give an overview of one of the major tasks of the Girls Study Group: the review of screening and assessment instruments to determine their applicability for delinquent girls. The goals of this assessment instrument review include: (1) the identification of instruments that are recommended for use with delinquent and at-risk girls and (2) the generation of a set of guidelines for the selection and use of screening and assessment instruments appropriate for delinquent girls. The instrument review involved identifying and collecting relevant information about instruments currently being used with juvenile offenders and then grouping instruments into various categories based on their purpose, with the primary classification being (1) treatment-focused instruments designed to identify a condition, problem area, or strength area versus (2) public safety-focused instruments intended to predict a particular outcome or behavior (e.g., recidivism risk). Our findings indicate that among instruments developed for use in correctional settings or for use with delinquent or at-risk girls, very few have been validated or normed specifically for use with girls. We will discuss implications and recommendations, with a specific focus on risk-based prediction instruments.

Simulation-Based Training for Law Enforcement

Simulated Prison Environment Crisis Aversion Tools (SPECAT)
John S. Shaffer

The SPECAT Program consists of two components involving five separate tools. The first component, the Computer Based Training (CBT) includes a Video-Based Training tool, an Administrative Records tool, and a Reference Manager tool. The Video-Based Training tool fully immerses learners into a realistic, information intensive and challenging environment where their decisions lead them through realistic consequences. The flexible scenario structure and the intuitive interface empower the trainees to drive the scenario with multiple option and outcome possibilities, which maximizes reusability of the tool. The Administrative Records tool provides Training Coordinators with student records and a training tool that can foster learning and improve future scores. The Reference Manager enables approved Administrators to update the references and glossary terms incorporated within the Video-Based Training Tool and allow the Training tool to evolve with current policies and procedures.

The second component of the SPECAT Program is the Facility Familiarization Tool (FFT) and the FFT Database Maintenance tool. The FFT is an interactive, 3D modeled facility that virtually eliminates the difficulty and potential risks associated with exploring a populated and fully operational facility in the traditional setting. It instantly brings layers of mission critical and facility specific data to the surface while en route to tactical situations. The FFT allows users to become familiar with the actual facility layout, emergency routing paths, available resources, and the surrounding environment without having to physically enter the facility. The FFT Database provides approved Administrators the ability to edit data available within the FFT, enabling the FFT to remain up to date for learning and emergency situations.

Use of Computer Generated Imagery for Law Enforcement Training
Asuncion Simmonds

Computer Generated Imagery (CGI) has long been a recognized training technology for military applications. Recent developments in this technology have improved the potential for CGI applications in law enforcement training environments. CGI technology offers some advantages over traditional video simulations. It allows the creation of user-unique and interactive training environments and scenarios that can be rapidly modified to meet evolving training needs. With funding from NIJ, NAVAIR Orlando Training Systems Division and Boston Dynamics, Inc., are using CGI technology to demonstrate the use of Simulation Based Training for an officer or a team to improve tactics and decision making on the use of force and choice of weapon. The system integrates speech recognition technology to complement the logic behind the triggering of the specific scenario-branching needed to meet specific training objectives. This presentation will include an explanation of the current work, and the potential directions for this promising technology. A limited demonstration of the progress to date will also be presented.

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Date Created: November 27, 2007